Russian Army officer ranks were indicated on the gorget, during the Napoleonic Wars, by a combination of gold or silver (or yellow and white metal) on the 1) edge, 2) field, and 3) emblem.
Ensigns: all silver
Sub-Lieutenants: gold edge, silver field and eagle
Lieutenants: silver edge and field with a gold eagle
Staff-Captains: Gold edge, silver field, gold eagle
Captains: Gold edge and field, silver eagle
Majors, Lieutenant-Colonels and Colonels: all gold (no distinction is made between these three ranks).
"Ober-officers" (ensign to captain) wore epaulettes without fringe, and "Staff-officers" (major to colonel) had fringes.
Example of a lieutenant's gorget (Leib-Guards Izmaylovskiy Regiment)
Non-commissioned officers are indicated by strips of galloon tape on their collars and sleeve cuffs and a quartered pompon on the shako, but are not graduated further among themselves in dress. Before August 1809, most infantry NCOs carried halberds and a minority carried rifled muskets (regular infantry muskets with shallow rifling bored into their barrels), then only the sergeant major (Feldwebel) in each company retained their halberds. In October 1811, all halberds were abolished. Officer-cadets from the nobility serving in the ranks (sub-ensigns and portupee-ensigns) had NCO rank and wore the same galloon as the commoner-NCOs, but the latter was permitted to carry an officer's sword and swordknot. The established personnel accounted for one of each type of cadet per company (8 per battalion), but only two per battalion carried colours. In the cavalry, standard-bearers were further distinguished by a strip of galloon down the center of their shoulder straps. Battalion drummers, the regimental drummer, and all the musicians of the regimental band were distinguished from the company drummers and fifers by galloon on the collar and cuffs like NCOs, as well as an extra chevron on their sleeves.
Example of an NCO's coat (Izmaylovskiy again)
Company office, NCO and private from the 1811 infantry manual (at shoulder arms)
Major Generals, Lieutenant Generals and full Generals ("General from the Infantry" etc.) were not distinguished from one another in dress, nor were General-Field-Marshals. They collectively stood out against field officers by having a metallic leaf pattern on the collar, cuffs and pocket flaps, thick spiraling fringe on their epaulettes and additional plumage on their hats (this becomes moot when regimental officers switch to wearing shakos around 1810).
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